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(i)What do you mean by hypothesis?
(ii) How does law difer from theory?
(iii) What is deductive reasoning ?
(iv) Deine vaccination.
(v) Write a short note on cloning.
Important Long question.
(i) Define the following branches of biology: Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Marine Biology, and Biotechnology
(ii) Discuss briely phyletic lineage in biological organization.
(iii) Write notes on the following:
(a) Living world in space and time (b) Population
(iv) Explain the biological method for solving a biological problem. How do deductive and inductive reasoning play an important role in it?
(v) What is the role of the study of Biology in the welfare of mankind?
i. Name the carbohydrates suitable as food for man.
ii. Why are fats considered as high energy compounds?
iii. What is the function of mRNA? iv. What is the general formula for amino acids?
v. What is the percentage of water in brain cells of man?
i. Describe the importance of water for life.
ii. Describe what you know about polysaccharides.
iii. Write a short note on amino acids.
(i) List two conditions that destroy enzymatic activity by disrupting bonds between the atoms in an enzyme.
(ii) How do low and high temperature, affect an enzyme activity?
(iii) What is a prosthetic group?
(iv) Define inhibitors of enzyme.
(v) How does an enzyme accelerate a metabolic reaction?
1. Describe in detail the mechanism of enzyme action.
2. Give the effect of pH and temperature on the deficiency of an enzyme action.
3. Write a note on inhibitors of enzymes.
4. What is the importance of enzymes in life?
i. Describe various movements involved in the transport of materials across the cell membrane.
ii. State various structural modifications in a cell involved in secretions.
iii. List the processes blocked by mitochondrial failure in a cell.
iv. What will happen if a chromosome loses its centromere?
V. How does autophagy help in converting a tadpole larva into an adult amphibian?
vi. Is there any similarity between bacterial and plant cell wall?
(i) Compare structure and function of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
(ii) State ‘Cell Theory’ and discuss its emergence.
(iii) Write notes on : (a) Cytoskeleton (b) Peroxisomes & Glyoxysomes
(v) What might happen if some liposomal enzymes are absent?
Explain with examples
TWO TO FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
Life cycle of Bacteriophages
Some Viral Diseases
(i) Describe in detail the structure of bacterial cell wall, emphasizing Gram positive and Gram negative properties.
(ii) Write an account of different methods used for controlling microbes.
(iii) Discuss the role of antibiotics and immunization in controlling bacterial diseases. What problem can arise due to misuse of antibiotics?
(iv) Describe general characteristics of Cyanobacteria with special reference to Nostoc.
(i) Discuss important features of protists. Why are protists so diicult to classify? (ii) What are the reasons for grouping simple eukaryodc organisms into a separate kingdom, protista?
(iii) How are protists important to humans? What is their ecological importance?
(iv) What are three major groups of protists?
(vi) Discuss general characteristics of algae.
(vii) Green algae are considered ancestral organisms of green land plants. Discuss.
(viii) What features distinguish Oomycotes from fungi?
(ix) Describe structure and reproduction of slime molds
(i) What is a hypha? What is the advantage of having incomplete septa?
(ii) What is the composition of fungal cell wall and how is this composition advantageous to fungi?
(iii) To which phyla do yeasts belong? How do they differ from other fungi?
(iv) Name sexual and asexual spores of Ascomycetes.
(v) What are mycorrhizae? (vi) By what means can individuals in imperfect fungi be classified? (vii) Give a single characteristic that diferentiates Zygomycota from Basidiomycota.
(viii) Why is green mold more likely to contaminate an orange kept in a refrigerator than are bacteria? (ix) What is a fungus?
(x) State two parallel characteristics of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes.
(i) Discuss taxonomic status of fungi.
(ii) Summarize differentiating/distinguishing characteristics of four main groups of Fungi, and give two common examples of each group.
(iii) State various features of fungi that adapt them to terrestrial mode of life.
(iv) What is ecological importance of saprotrophic fungi, of lichens and mycorrhizae?
(v) Same enzymes of fungi are useful on one hand and harmful on other. Discuss.
(vi) Name any four important fungal diseases of plants and four fungal diseases of humans, and briefly describe any one of the plant diseases and any one of the diseases of humans.
(vii) Describe, giving examples, different ways in which fungi are useful to humans.
(viii) Diferentiate between the members of each of the following pairs. (a) Spore/Conidium (b) Ascus/Basidium (b) Dikaryotic/Diploid (c) Ascocarp/Ascus (c) Obligate parasite/Facultative parasite (d) Endomycorrhizae/Ectomycorrhizae (e) Plasmogamy/Karyogamy
(i) (a) How are ferns better adapted to life on land than liverworts and mosses?
(b) Which of the following are nutritionally self supporting:
1. Mature liverwort and moss gametophyte.
2. Mature liverwort and moss sporophyte.
(ii) (a) The chances of survival and development of wind-blown pollen grains are much less than those of spores of Adiantum. Comment on this statement. (b) Account for the fact that megaspores are large and microspores are small. (c) What important advances have angiosperms made towards the seed plant life?
(iii) Write a note on the alternation of generations.
(iv) What is the importance of the following? (i) Seed. (ii) Double fertilization. (iii) Heterospory. (vi) Pick and match the following: (i) Fem sporophyte involves vegetative parts of plants.
(ii) The moss plant is the irst cell of sporophyte.
(iii) The gamete is the last cell of gametophyte.
(iv) The spores are asexual reproductive cells.
(v) Vegetative reproduction are haploid cells.
(vi) The oospore is gametophytic generation.
(vii) The gamete is a diploid generation.
(viii) The spore mother cell is the first cell of gametophytes.
(ix) The spore with naked seeds.
(x) Gymnosperms are the plants divides by reduction division to form haploid spores.
(vii) Sketch and label a fertile pinnule and a sporangium of Adiantum.
(i) To what does alternation of generations refer in the plants?
Define sporophyte and gametophyte. With which stage is an adult animal comparable? How are they reproductively dissimilar?
(ii) What is a seed? Why is the seed a crucial adaptation to terrestrial life?
(iii) Describe evolution of leaf and its importance in vascular plants.
(iv) Discuss evolution of seed and it significance
(v) In what way do the lowering plants differ from the rest of the seed plants? What is the stigma? Is fertilization in angiosperms direct or indirect? From what tissue does
angiosperm fruit develop?
(vi) What two classes comprise the angiosperms? How do the two classes structurally differ from one another? Which class derived from the other? Explain.
(i) What are Cnidaria? Explain the diploblastic origin, alternation of generations in cranidaria.
(ii) Describe the parasitic adaptations in phylum platyhelminthes – How does tape worms afect a person.
(iii) Give the symptoms of the disease caused by certain nematodes.
(iv) Give an account of the major groups of Arthropods. What is the economic importance of insects.
(v) Give the two major classes of the Pisces and explain the adaptations of aquatic mode of life in ishes.
(vi) Give the adaptations for aerial mode of life in birds. What is their origin.
(vii) What are the general characteristics of mammals? How do the three subclasses protheria, Metatheria, and Eutheria differ from one another?
(viii) Distinguish between the following by giving examples (a) Radial and Bilateral Symmetry. (b) Diploblastic and triploblastic animals. (c) Anamniotes and amniotes.
(i) List four features of a leaf which show that it is able to carry out photosynthesis effectively. (ii) Summarize the role of water in photosynthesis.
(iii) What are T.W. Engelman and Melvin Calvin famous for?
(iv) What is the difference between an action spectrum and an absorption spectrum?
(V) What is the role of accessory pigments in light absorption?
(vi) When and why is there not net exchange of C02 and O2 between the leaves and the atmosphere?
(vii) What is the net production of ATP during glycolysis?
(viii) What is the main diference between photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation?
(ix) What is the location of ETC and chemiosmosis in photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
(X) How did the evolution of photosynthesis affect the metabolic pathway?
(iv) Sketch Kreb’s cycle and discuss its energy yielding steps.
(v) Describe various steps involved in oxidative break down of glucose to pyruvate.
(vi) Sketch respiratory electron transport chain. Discuss the signiicance of ETC.
(vii) Compare photosynthesis with respiration in plants.
(viii) Explain the diference between the cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation with the help of Z scheme.
(ix) Give an account of light-independent reactions of photosynthesis.
CHAPTER 12 NUTRITION Short Questions
(i) What is the advantage of a digestive tract as compared with a digestive cavity?
(ii) What are functions of human liver?
(iii) What measures should be taken to avoid food poisoning?
(iv) Can we get along without large intestine? if not why?
(i) Define nutrition. Describe the role of different elements in plant nutrition.
(ii) a) Distinguish between saprophytic and parasitic modes of life,
i. Name one parasitic plant,
ii. Describe its method of nutrition, explaining why normal nutrition is not possible.
(iii) What are heterotrophs? Describe different methods of nutrition in heterotrophs.
(iv) What are the advantages and disadvantages of the parasitic mode of life compared with that of a free living organism?
(v) Why is digestion necessary? Describe what happens to a meal containing fats, carbohydrates and proteins while it is in the stomach of man.
(vi) What is holozoic nutrition? Describe the characteristics processes involved in holozoic nutrition giving the example of Amoeba.
(i) the saliva,
(ii) the pancreas,
(iii) the liver help in the digestion of the food of man? Draw a diagram of the digestive system to show the positions of the pancreas and the liver.
(viii) Make a labelled diagram of the alimentary and digestive glands in cockroach. What are the functions of the glands you sketch?
(ix) Describe the structure and functions of human stomach.
(x) How do the digestive tract of herbivores differ from those of carnivores? (xi) What prevents the wall of stomach from being digested?
(xii) What specialized features of your small intestine account for the deficient absorption of digested foodstuffs?
(xiii) W hat is the contribution of liver and pancreas in the process of digestion? (xvi) How can we control obesity? (xv) How is gastric juice production regulated?
CHAPTER 13 Gaseous Exchange (Short questions)
(i) How does breathing differ from respiration?
(ii) How much carbon dioxide is present in venous and arterial blood?
(iii) How does air always remain in the lungs of human beings?
(iv) What are the products which are produced during photorespiration?
(v) How much denser is a water medium than air medium for exchange of respiratory gases?
(i) In what ways is air a better respiratory medium than water?
(ii) What is photorespiration? Give its consequences.
(iii) Describe briefly the properties of respiratory surfaces in cockroach.
(iv) In what ways is respiration in birds the most deficient and elaborate?
(v) Discuss the mechanical aspects of breathing in man.
(vi) Write a detailed note on respiratory pigments.
(vii) List the air passage way in sequence from nostrils to alveoli. Describe the structure of alveolus in detail
CHAPTER 14 Transports Important Long Questions
(i) How are minerals and water taken up by roots? Draw the structures involved and the pathways for water and minerals from soil water to xylem, and the transport processes at each step.
(ii) Describe the mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.
(iii) How does the pressure-low theory explain the movement of sugars through a plant?
(iv) Describe cohesion-tension theory of water movement in xylem. What supplies the cohesion, and what is the source of tension? How do these two forces interact to move water through plant,
(v) Explain, apoplast, symplast and vacuolar pathways, and describe the movement of water and dissolved minerals, through them.
(vi) Explain water potential. What is the relationship of water potential with solute potential and pressure potential?
(vii) Name and describe the general functions of the three major type of cells or cell like bodies found in blood of humans. Which of these cell types is found predominantly in lymph?
(ix) Write a note on immunity and its types.
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